Welcome to Zoology World

balindrakumar033@gmail.com   22/06/2018,Friday


The science or study of animal life. Together with botany, the study of plant life, it forms the science of biology. Zoology is such a vast subject that most zoologists specialize or focus on the study of particular organisms or taxonomic groups. tion of animals.

Neural Control and Coordination

In all the multicellular animals above the level of sponges,the system meant to perceive stimuli detected by the receptors,to transmit these to various body parts,and to effect respones through effectors,is called nervous system.In vertebrates,it is highly specialized and plays at least three vital roles.

  • Sensory function:
  • It senses certain changes(stimuli) both within body(internal environment) and out side body(external environment).

  • Integrative functions:
  • It analyses the sensory information,store some aspects,and make decisions regarding appropriate behaviour.

  • Motor function:
  • It may respond to stimuli by initiating muscular contractions or glandular secretions.

Nervous systems in various animals:

  • Coelenterata:
  • True nerve cell or ganglion cells occur for the first time in coelenterates.They are derived from interstitial cells of epidermis,forming nerve net or nerve plexus below whole epidermis, A polar neurons are found in coelenterata.

  • Platyhelminthes:
  • Nervous system of planarians marks the beginning of a centralized nervous system encountered in higher animals.That is made up of brain or cerebral ganglia,two lateral logitudinal nerve chords,numerous peripheral nerves and transverse commissures or connectives.This is sometimes called the ladder type of nervous system.
    In Nematoda (e.g.ascaris)these system made up of central nervous system,peripheral nervous system and rectal nervous system.Rectal nervous system more developed in male.Ascaris with dorsal,ventral and lateral nerve cords.

  • Annelida:
  • Nervous system well developed and concentrated.It consists of three parts: Central nervous system,peripheral nervous system and sympathetic nervous system,central N.S made up of Nerve ring and ventral nerve cord.Nerves are of mixed type,consisting of both afferent(sensory) and efferent(motor)fibres.

Development of central nervous system in human